高中英語動詞種類和形式知識點歸納

時間:2019-01-04 英語知識 我要投稿

  類 別

  意義

  例 句

  實義動詞

  含有實在的意義,表示動作或狀態,在句子中能獨立作謂語。

  She has some bananas.

  They eat a lot of potatoes.

  連系動詞

  本身有一定的詞義,但不能獨立作謂語,必須和表語一起構成謂語。

  His father is a teacher.

  Twins usually look the same.

  The teacher became very angry.

  助動詞

  本身沒有詞義,不能獨立作謂語,只能和主要動詞一起構成謂語動詞,用來表示否定、疑問、時態、語態或其它語法形式,助動詞自身有人稱、單復數和時態的變化。

  He doesn’t speak English.

  We are playing basketball.

  Do you have a brother?

  情態動詞

  本身有一定的意義,不能獨立作謂語,只能和主要動詞一起構成謂語動詞,表示說話人的語氣和情態。情態動詞沒有人稱和單復數的變化,有些情態動詞有過去式。

  You can keep the books for two weeks.

  May I smoke here?

  We must go now.

  重要注解:

  (1)關于實義動詞:

  ①英語的實義動詞又可分為及物動詞和不及物動詞兩大類:

  后面必須跟賓語意義才完整的叫及物動詞;本身意義完整,后面不需跟賓語的叫不及物動詞。

  ②有些動詞通常只作不及物動詞。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive等。

  有些動詞通常用作及物動詞。如:say,raise,lay,find,buy等。

  ③大多數動詞可以兼作及物動詞和不及物動詞。如:study,sing等。

  ④有些動詞作及物動詞與作不及物動詞時的意義有所不同。如:know,wash等。

  ⑤有些動詞常和介詞、副詞或其它詞類一起構成固定詞組,形成短語動詞。如:listen,reply,wait,look.

  (2)關于連系動詞:

  ①連系動詞用來連接主語和表語,連系動詞后面常為形容詞。

  ②常見的連系動詞有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、grow、get、go、fall、sit、stand、lie等。

  ③有些連系動詞來源于實義動詞,意思也跟著變化:look(看→看起來)、feel(感覺、摸→感到)、smell(聞、嗅→聞起來)、taste(嘗→嘗起來)、turn(翻轉、轉動→變得)、grow(生長→變得)、get(得到、到達→變得)、go(去→變得),所不同的是,作為實義動詞時,后面不能跟形容詞。

  (3)關于助動詞:

  ①常見的助動詞有:

  用于進行時和被動語態的be(am,is,are,was,were,been,being);

  用于完成時的have(has,had,having);

  用于將來時的shall(should);will(would)

  用于一般時的do(does,did).

  ②助動詞必須同主語的人稱和數一致,也就是說因主語人稱、數的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助動詞也可作情態動詞。如:shall,will,should,would.

  2、動詞詞形變化一覽表:

  (1)規則動詞變化表:

  規 則變 化

  原形動詞結尾情況

  現在時單三人稱

  現在分詞/動名詞

  過去式和過去分詞

  一般情況

  +s

  +ing

  +ed

  s,x,ch,sh,o結尾

  +es

  +ing

  +ed

  輔音字母+y結尾

  y→i,+es

  +ing

  y→i,+ed

  重讀閉音節一元一輔結尾

  +s

  雙寫輔音字母,+ing

  雙寫輔音字母,+ed

  不發音的e結尾

  +s

  去掉e,+ing

  +d

  ie結尾

  +s

  ie→y,+ing

  +d

  不規則變化

  have→has;be→is

  (無)

  (見不規則動詞變化表)

  (2)不規則動詞變化表:(原形→過去式→過去分詞)

  be(am,is)

  was

  been

  lose

  lost

  lost

  be(are)

  were

  been

  make

  made

  made

  beat

  beat

  beaten

  may

  might

  become

  became

  become

  mean

  meant

  meant

  begin

  began

  begun

  meet

  met

  met

  blow

  blew

  blown

  mistake

  mistook

  mistaken

  break

  broke

  broken

  must

  must

  bring

  brought

  brought

  pay

  paid

  paid

  build

  built

  built

  put

  put

  put

  buy

  bought

  bought

  read

  read

  Read

  can

  could

  ride

  rode

  ridden

  catch

  caught

  caught

  ring

  rang

  rung

  choose

  chose

  chosen

  rise

  rose

  risen

  come

  came

  come

  run

  ran

  run

  cost

  cost

  cost

  say

  said

  said

  cut

  cut

  cut

  see

  saw

  seen

  dig

  dug

  dug

  sell

  sold

  sold

  do

  did

  done

  send

  sent

  sent

  draw

  drew

  drawn

  set

  set

  set

  drink

  drank

  drunk

  shall

  should

  drive

  drove

  driven

  shine

  shone

  shone

  eat

  ate

  eaten

  show

  showed

  shown

  fall

  fell

  fallen

  shut

  shut

  shut

  feel

  felt

  felt

  sing

  sang

  sung

  find

  found

  found

  sink

  sank/sunk

  sunk/sunken

  fly

  flew

  flown

  sit

  set

  set

  forget

  forgot

  forgot/forgotten

  sleep

  slept

  slept

  freeze

  froze

  frozen

  smell

  smelt

  smelt

  get

  got

  got

  speak

  spoke

  spoken

  give

  gave

  given

  spend

  spent

  spent

  go

  went

  gone

  spill

  spilt

  spilt

  grow

  grew

  grown

  spoil

  spoilt

  spoilt

  hang

  hung/hanged

  hung/hanged

  stand

  stood

  stood

  have(has)

  had

  had

  sweep

  swept

  swept

  hear

  heard

  heard

  swim

  swam

  swum

  hide

  hid

  hidden

  take

  took

  taken

  hit

  hit

  hit

  teach

  taught

  taught

  hold

  held

  held

  tell

  told

  told

  hurt

  hurt

  hurt

  think

  thought

  thought

  keep

  kept

  kept

  throw

  threw

  thrown

  know

  knew

  known

  understand

  understood

  understood

  lay

  laid

  laid

  wake

  woke/waked

  woken/waked

  learn

  learnt/learned

  learnt/learned

  wear

  wore

  worn

  leave

  left

  left

  will

  would

  lend

  lent

  lent

  win

  won

  won

  let

  let

  let

  write

  wrote

  witten

  lie

  lay

  lain

  3、be(“是/存在”)動詞的各種時態變化:

  一 般 現 在 時

  一 般 將 來 時

  現 在 完 成 時

  I am….

  You are.…

  He/She/It is….

  We/You/They are….

  (I等各人稱) will be….

  I am

  He/She/It is going to be…

  We/You/They are

  I have been….

  You have been….

  She/he/It has been….

  We/You/They have been….

  一 般 過 去 時

  過 去 將 來 時

  過 去 完 成 時

  I was….

  You were.…

  He/She/It was….

  We/You/They were….

  (I等各人稱) would be….

  I was

  He/She/It was going to be…

  We/You/They were

  I had been….

  You had been….

  She/he/It had been….

  We/You/They had been….

  注意:句型變化時,

  否定句在am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would后面加not,而且not都可以縮寫為n’t(am后面not不可以縮寫);

  疑問句將am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would提前到句首。

  4、其它謂語動詞(主動語態)的時態變化一覽表:

  現在 時態

  一 般 現 在 時

  現 在 進 行 時

  一 般 將 來 時

  現 在 完 成 時

  謂語動詞構成

  動詞用原形(單三加s / es)

  (問句和否定句借用助詞do / does)

  am

  is +動詞-ing

  are

  will + 動詞原形

  am

  is +going to+動詞原形

  are

  have +過去分詞

  has

  過去 時態

  一 般 過 去 時

  過 去 進 行 時

  過 去 將 來 時

  過 去 完 成 時

  謂語動詞構成

  動詞用過去式

  (問句和否定句借用助詞did)

  was

  +動詞-ing

  were

  would + 動詞原形

  was

  +going to+動詞原形

  were

  注:動詞的非謂語形式及用法見非謂語動詞專項講解。

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